Breast Cancer

Overview

Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women, worldwide. Bangladesh has one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in Asia. In the case of Bangladeshi women, aged between 15-44 years, breast cancer has the highest prevalence of 19.3 per 100000 compared to any other type of cancer. The best way to fight this cancer is to detect it early and start appropriate treatment. Women below the age of 40 should carry out regular self-examination and those over 40 should undergo regular screening mammography. Labaid Cancer Hospitals provide excellent facilities for clinical breast examination and testing under the most sought-after lady Gynae -oncologist in Dhaka.

Symptoms

·         Small of large lump in the breast

·         Change size shape of the appearance of the breast.

·         Swollen lump node in the neck & Underarms

·         Inverted nipple, orange-like dimpling

·         Nipple retraction or pain

·         Redness, Thickening of Breast skin and nipples.

·         Swallowing in and around collar bones.

Risk factors

·         Family history

·         Genetic mutation

·         Late childbearing.

·         Early menstruation and late Menstruation.

·         Obesity/increased Breast Density

·         Prolong uses of contraceptives and HRT therapy.

·         Alcohol, Tobacco intake.

DIAGNOSIS

Tests and procedures used to diagnose Gynaecological cancer include:

·         Examining the pelvis. During a pelvic exam, your doctor carefully inspects the outer portion of your genitals (vulva), and then inserts two fingers of one hand into your vagina and simultaneously presses the other hand on your abdomen to feel your uterus and ovaries. He or she also inserts a device called a speculum into your vagina. The speculum opens your vagina so that your doctor can view your vagina and cervix for abnormalities.

·         Using sound waves to create a picture of your uterus. Your doctor may recommend a transvaginal ultrasound to look at the thickness and texture of the endometrium and help rule out other conditions. In this procedure, a wand like device (transducer) is inserted into your vagina. Imaging studies that Including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) also.

·         Using a scope to examine your endometrium. During a hysteroscopy, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible, lighted tube (hysteroscope) through your vagina and cervix into your uterus. A lens on the hysteroscope allows your doctor to examine the inside of your uterus and the endometrium.

·         Removing a sample of tissue for testing. To get a sample of cells from inside your uterus, you'll likely undergo a Gynaecological biopsy. This involves removing tissue from your uterine lining for laboratory analysis. Gynaecological biopsy may be done in your doctor's office and usually doesn't require anaesthesia.

·          Molecular tissue testing: For determining tumour-specific genes, proteins, and other characteristics.

·         Performing surgery to remove tissue for testing. If enough tissue can't be obtained during a biopsy or if the biopsy results are unclear, you'll likely need to undergo a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C). During D&C, tissue is scraped from the lining of your uterus and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

·         Punch Biopsies

·         Colposcopy, D & C

·         CT, MRI for Uterus, Cervix, Breast and Mammography for Breast. 

STAGING GYNAECOLOGICAL CANCER

Once your cancer has been diagnosed, your doctor works to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. Tests used to determine your cancer's stage may include a chest X-ray, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan and blood tests. The final determination of your cancer's stage may not be made until after you undergo surgery to treat your cancer.

TREATMENT

-          Surgery

Treatment for Gynaecological cancer usually involves an operation to remove the uterus (hysterectomy), as well as to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy). A hysterectomy makes it impossible for you to become pregnant in the future. Also, once your ovaries are removed, you'll experience menopause, if you haven't already.

-          Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses powerful energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. In some instances, your doctor may recommend radiation to reduce your risk of a cancer recurrence after surgery. In certain situations, radiation therapy may also be recommended before surgery, to shrink a tumour and make it easier to remove.

Radiation therapy can involve:

·         Radiation from a machine outside your body. During external beam radiation, you lie on a table while a machine directs radiation to specific points on your body.

·         Radiation placed inside your body. Internal radiation (brachytherapy) involves placing a radiation-filled device, such as small seeds, wires or a cylinder, inside your vagina for a short period of time.

-          Chemotherapy

-          Chemotherapy

uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. You may receive one chemotherapy drug, or two or more drugs can be used in combination. You may receive chemotherapy drugs by pill (orally) or through your veins (intravenously). These drugs enter your bloodstream and then travel through your body, killing cancer cells.

-          Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy involves taking medications to lower the hormone levels in the body. In response, cancer cells that rely on hormones to help them grow might die. Hormone therapy may be an option if you have advanced Gynaecological cancer that has spread beyond the uterus.

-          Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments focus on specific weaknesses present within cancer cells. By blocking these weaknesses, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted drug therapy is usually combined with chemotherapy for treating advanced Gynaecological cancer.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a drug treatment that helps your immune system to fight cancer. Your body's disease-fighting immune system might not attack cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that blind the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process. For Gynaecological cancer, immunotherapy might be considered if the cancer is advanced and other treatments haven't helped.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your other doctors to provide an extra layer of support that complements your ongoing care. Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care teams aim to improve the quality of life for people with cancer and their families. This form of care is offered alongside curative or other treatments you may be receiving. Brachytherapy- give a specific area to treat by radiation.

Our Technology and Services

·         4D ultrasonography

·         CT scan, PET CT Scan.

·         Mammography.

·         Early screening test For Breast/Ovary/Cervix Cancer

·         Consultation with Expert Gynae-oncologist.

·         Accurate Diagnosis by modern laboratory Facilities.

·         A comprehensive and affordable Treatment Packages.

·         Counselling by Expert.

·         Nutritional Diet adviser.

Our services And Gynae-Oncology Team

At Labaid Cancer Hospital and Super Specialty Center,  Gyne-Onco Centre- Gynecological cancers are given special attention and care. We understand that women need their space, which is why we have a dedicated unit for women's oncology. Timely diagnosis and the right way to treatment are critical determinants of cancer treatment, especially those that afflict women, specifically cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. Being an organ-site focused cancer hospital, our team comprises of dedicated gynaecological oncologist, gynaecologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist and radiation therapists who have years of experience and clinical expertise with gynaecological cancer. The division of gynaecological-oncology is supported by state-of-the-art technology and care, which drastically improves cancer diagnosis and treatment approach.

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