Bone Cancer


Abnormally and uncontrolled growing cells formed a mass in Bones, Known as Bone’s Tumor.

Tumors of Bone:

According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeon, Bone’s Tumors are-

  • Osteochondroma - This Tumor is common but benign. It arises from the active end of Bones like the upper arm bone as-Humerus and Thigh bones as Femur.
  • Osteosarcoma - It happened mostly in children and adolescents and the second most common Tumors. This tumor can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
  • Chondrosarcoma - This Tumor development in middle-aged and Old People. It can develop in the hip, shoulder, and pelvic area.
  • Ewing’s Tumors - This can affect Children, Adolescent, and Adults. It can develop in the upper arm, Leg bones, Pelvis, Ribs and Skull. It can also originate in the soft tissue of Blood vessels and Muscles.
  • Multiple Myeloma - It is the most common which is the secondary cause of bone cancer. It grows in the Bone marrow and affects Older adults.

Risk Factors

·        Exact causes of Bone cancers are unknown but there are some risk factors that may cause Bone tumors-


·        Radiation


·        Injuries of the Bones


·        Genetical factors.


·        Fractures implant by Metal.


·        Chemotherapy for other cancer.


·        Pain -where the Tumors are located.


·        Swelling of the affected joints


·        Difficulty in walking, if fractures happened due to Tumors


·        Fever, weight loss, Anemia are other symptoms.


Doctors can grade the Tumors as-


Stage IA-The Tumors are below 8 cm and do not spread to the other organ.


Stage IB-This Tumors are above 8cm and more than one separate Tumors. It has not spread to any Lymph nodes.


Stage IIA: The tumor is high grade and 8 cm or smaller. It has not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body (N0, M0).


Stage IIB: The tumor is high grade and larger than 8 cm. It has not spread to any lymph nodes or other parts of the body (N0, M0)


Stage III: There are multiple high-grade (G2 or G3) tumors in the primary bone site (T3), but they have not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body (N0, M0).


Stage IVA: The tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to the lung(s).


·        Blood Test-Alkaline phosphates and lactate Dehydrogenase increases in Bone’s Sarcoma and Osteochondroma.


·        Biopsy-Tissue the sample is collected and identify the cancer is present or not.


·        X-Ray-Create a picture and locate the tumors or bone structure of a human body.


·        Bone scan-It helps to identify the stage of Bone sarcoma. It uses a radioactive tracer to look inside the bones.


·        MRI-It produces a magnetics field to visualize detailed pictures of the body.


·        PET Scan-It creates pictures of the organ and Tissues of the Body and evaluating cells, tissues and disease progression.


Surgery-Surgical Oncologist and Orthopedic Oncologist removes Tumors of bones and their surrounding structures. If Tumors are in the Hand or in the legs then it tries to avoid any harm to the legs or Hands.


Chemotherapy -Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells abnormally grow. Some common drugs are-Cisplatin. Doxorubicin, Ifsomide, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide, and Etoposide.


Radiotherapy-It uses the high energy of Xray to destroy cancerous cells. The most common radiation is External Beam radiotherapy. For bone sarcoma, radiation therapy is most often used for a tumor that cannot be removed with surgery


Target Therapy-Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival


Immune-therapy-Immunotherapy also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.

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