Kidney Cancer

Overview

Kidney cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the kidney. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Doctors can diagnose it because of better diagnostic facilities.

Types of Renal Tumors are-

·         Renal cell Carcinoma

·         Papillary Renal cell Carcinoma

·         Benign Renal Tumors

·         Wilms Tumors.

Risk factors

·         Smoking

·         Obesity

·         Family History

·         Workplace Hazards

·         Certain medicine

·         Age, Race. Gender.

·         Advance Kidney Diseases.

 

Stages: According To TNM classification.

T0: No evidence of primary tumor
T1: Tumor 7.0 cm (about 2.8 inches) or less, only in the kidney
T1a: Tumor 4.0 cm (about 1.6 inches) or less, only in the kidney
T1b: Tumor 4.0-7.0 cm, only in the kidney
T2: Tumor greater than 7.0 cm, only in the kidney
T2a: Tumor greater than 7.0 cm and less than 10.0 cm, only in the kidney
T2b: Tumor greater than 10 cm (about 3.9 inches), only in the kidney
T3: Tumor grows into major veins but not into the adrenal gland and not beyond the tissue around the kidney's and adrenal glands
T3a: Tumor involves the renal vein or its branches, or perirenal and or renal sinus fat but does not grow beyond the tissue that goes around the kidneys and adrenal glands
T3b: Tumor grows into the large vein that brings blood into the heart and below the diaphragm
T3c: Tumor grows into vena cava above the diaphragm or reaches into the diaphragm
T4: Tumor reaches beyond the tissue around the kidney's and adrenal gland.

Investigation

Blood Test-Lab tests cannot show for sure if a person has kidney cancer, but they can sometimes give the first hint that there may be a kidney problem. Complete blood count (CBC): This is a test that measures the number of different cells in the blood. This test result is often abnormal in people with kidney cancer. Anemia is very common.

X-ray- To detect kidney Tumors and location.

Ultrasound-Help to look at suspicious areas that might be cancer. To learn how far cancer might have spread.

MRI/CT Scan-It can provide precise information about the size, shape, and location of a tumor.

Kidney Biopsy-A biopsy might be done to get a small sample of tissue from an area that may be cancer when the imaging tests are not clear enough to permit surgery. A biopsy may also be done to confirm cancer if a person might not be treated with surgery. So, it helps to plan for treatment.

Treatment of Kidney Cancer

Active surveillance (AS)

·         Active surveillance is the least invasive treatment for small, localized renal masses. Your healthcare provider will help you decide if this is a good choice for you.

Partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy-Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of the kidney.

Ablation

·         Cryoablation (cold ablation) is when very cold gases are passed through a probe that destroys the tumor cells. 

·         Radiofrequency ablation (hot ablation) is when a thin, needle-like probe is placed through the skin to reach the tumor.

·         Targeted Therapy- Targeted drugs are proving to be especially important in kidney cancer, where chemotherapy has not been shown to be very effective. Eg-Sunitinib used as medicine.

·         Immunotherapy - Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to boost a person's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells more effectively. Several types of immunotherapy can be used to treat kidney cancer.

·         Chemotherapy- Traditional medium for Kidney Cancer Treatment.

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